Thứ Năm, 18 tháng 4, 2013

Dactylorhiza

Dactylorhiza (as named by Necker ex Nevski, 1937), commonly called marsh orchid or spotted orchid,[1] is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family (Orchidaceae). Dactylorhiza were previously classified under Orchis which has two round tubers.[2]

Species

Many species in this genus hybridise so readily that species boundaries themselves are vague, with regular name changes and no clear answers. A few species colonise very well onto fresh industrial wastes such as pulverised fuel ash, where vast hybrid swarms can appear for a decade or more, before ecological succession replaces them.
  • Dactylorhiza alpestris : Alpine Dactylorhiza (Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians).
  • Dactylorhiza angustata (France).
  • Dactylorhiza aristata : Keyflower (E. China to Alaska).
    • Dactylorhiza aristata var. aristata : Keyflower (E. China to Alaska).
    • Dactylorhiza aristata var. kodiakensis : Kodiak Keyflower (Aleutian Is. to SW. Alaska).
  • Dactylorhiza armeniaca (Turkey) - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. armeniaca (Hedrén) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza atlantica Kreutz & Vlaciha (Morocco)
  • Dactylorhiza baldshuanica (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza baltica (Eastern Europe) (synonym of Dactylorhiza longifolia (Neuman) Aver.)
  • Dactylorhiza baumanniana (N. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza baumanniana subsp. smolikana (B. Willing & E. Willing) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (Greece)
  • Dactylorhiza bohemica (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza cordigera (Fr.) Soó (SE. Europe to Ukraine).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. bosniaca (N. Balkan Pen).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. cordigera (SE. Europe to Ukraine).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca (H.Baumann) Presser)
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. pindica (B. Willing & E. Willing) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (NW. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera var. rhodopeia Presser (Greece, Southeastern Europe, Europe)
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. siculorum (Romania to W. Ukraine).
  • Dactylorhiza ebudensis (Wief. ex R.M. Bateman & Denholm) P. Delforge : Hebridean Marsh Orchid
  • Dactylorhiza elata (Poir.) Soó : Stately Dactylorhiza (W. Europe to NW. Africa).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. ambigua (Martrin-Donos) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. brennensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. elata (NW. Africa).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. mauritanica B.Baumann & H. Baumann (Morocco, Algeria)
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. sesquipedalis (SW. Europe to Sicilia).
  • Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep.
    • Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. armeniaca (Hedrén) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza flavescens (Turkey to C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza foliosa : Richly-leaved Dactylorhiza (Madeira).
  • Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soó  : Common Spotted Orchid, Fuch's Dactylorhiza (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. carpatica (Batousek & Kreutz) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. fuchsii (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. hebridensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. meyeri (Rchb.f.) Kulikov & E.G.Philippov
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. okellyi (Ireland, W. Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. psychrophila (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sooana (Borsos) Kreutz (Hungary)
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sudetica (Poech ex Rchb.f.) H.Baumann
  • Dactylorhiza gervasiana (Sicilia to S. Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza graeca (N. Greece) - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca (H.Baumann) Presser)
  • Dactylorhiza graggeriana (W. Himalaya).
  • Dactylorhiza hatagirea (Pakistan to SE. Tibet).
  • Dactylorhiza iberica (Greece to Iran).
  • Dactylorhiza ilgazica (N. Turkey) - now synonym of Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. ilgazica (Kreutz) Kreutz
Early Marsh Orchid
(Dactylorhiza incarnata)
Leopard Marsh Orchid
(Dactylorhiza praetermissa)
Broad-leaved Marsh Orchid
(Dactylorhiza majalis)
  • Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó  : Early Marsh Orchid
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata var. baumgartneriana (B.Baumann, H.Baumann, R.Lorenz & Ruedi Peter) P.Delforge
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. coccinea
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. cruenta (Europe to Turkey).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. gemmana (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. incarnata (Europe to Mongolia).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. krylovii (W. Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. lobelii (Norway to The Netherlands).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. ochroleuca (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. pulchella (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. versicolor (Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza insularis : Island Dactylorhiza (W. Medit. to WC. Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza kafiriana (NE. Afghanistan to W. Himalaya).
  • Dactylorhiza kalopissii E.Nelson (N. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. macedonica (J.Hölzinger & Künkele) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. pythagorae (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza kulikalonica (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza lapponica (Laest.ex Hartm.) Soó (N. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. angustata (Arv.-Touv.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. rhaetica H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (Alps of Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France)
  • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. russowii (Klinge) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (C. Europe to Siberia).
  • Dactylorhiza libanotica (Lebanon)
  • Dactylorhiza longifolia (Europe to C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza macedonica (N. Greece) - now a synonym of Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. macedonica (J.Hölzinger & Künkele) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó : Heath Spotted Orchid, Moorland Spotted Orchid (NW. Africa, Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. battandieri (N. Algeria).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. caramulensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. elodes (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. ericetorum : Heath Spotted Orchid (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. islandica (Iceland).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. kolaensis (Montell) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. maculata (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. maurusia (Morocco)
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. podesta (Netherlands).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. rhoumensis (Great Britain)
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. savogiensis (D.Tyteca & Gathoye) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. schurii (Carpathians).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. sennia (Vollmar) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. transsilvanica (SC. & SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza magna (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P.F.Hunt & Summerh.  : Broad-leaved Marsh Orchid, Western Marsh Orchid, Fan Orchid, Common Marsh Orchid (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza majalis var. brevifolia (Rchb.f.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens (Denmark)
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. majalis (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. occidentalis (W. & SW. Ireland, N. Great Britain) (synonym of Dactylorhiza kerryensis (Wilmott) P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes)
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. parvimajalis (D.Tyteca & Gathoye) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. sphagnicola
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. turfosa (Alps to W. Carpathians) - has become a synonym of Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. turfosa (F.Proch.) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza markusii : Markus' Dactylorhiza (N. Portugal to W. Spain and Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza nieschalkiorum (N. Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza occidentalis (Pugsley) P. Delforge : Irish Marsh Orchid (synonym of Dactylorhiza kerryensis (Wilmott) P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes)
  • Dactylorhiza osmanica (Turkey to Syria).
    • Dactylorhiza osmanica var. anatolica (Turkey).
    • Dactylorhiza osmanica var. osmanica (Turkey to Syria).
  • Dactylorhiza pindica (NW. Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza praetermissa : Leopard Marsh Orchid, Southern Marsh Orchid (W. & NW. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza purpurella (T.Stephenson & T.A.Stephenson) Soó : Northern Marsh Orchid (Great Britain, Ireland).
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. maculosa (T. Stephenson)
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. purpurella
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. cambrensis (R.H.Roberts) R.M.Bateman & Denholm 2005
  • Dactylorhiza pythagorae (E. Aegean Is.) - now a synonym of Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. pythagorae (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza romana : Roman Dactylorhiza (Mediterranean)
  • Dactylorhiza saccifera (Brongn.) Soó  : Sack-carrying Dactylorhiza (Mediterranean).
    • Dactylorhiza saccifera subsp. bithynica (H.Baumann) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza saccifera subsp. gervasiana (Tod.) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza salina (Caucasus to Amur)
  • Dactylorhiza sambucina : Elder-flowered Orchid (Europe). Photos
  • Dactylorhiza sudetica (Europe to Siberia)
  • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri (Saut. ex Rchb.) Soó : Narrow-leaved Marsh Orchid, Traunstein's Dactylorhiza (Europe to W. Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. carpatica (Slovakia) - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. carpatica (Batousek & Kreutz) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. turfosa (F.Proch.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. curvifolia (N. & NE. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. traunsteineri (Europe to W. Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. wirtgenii (Höppner) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteinerioides (Pugsley) Landwehr (synonym of Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. traunsteineri)
  • Dactylorhiza umbrosa (W. & C. Asia to Siberia)
  • Dactylorhiza urvilleana (Steud.) H.Baumann & Künkele (N. & NE. Turkey to Iran)
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. bithynica (H.Baumann) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. phoenissa B. Baumann & H. Baumann (Lebanon)
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. ilgazica (Kreutz) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza viridis : Frog orchid (Subarctic and subalpine Northern Hemisphere).
    • Dactylorhiza viridis var. virescens (Temp. Asia, N. America)
    • Dactylorhiza viridis var. viridis (Subarctic and subalpine Northern Hemisphere)

Hybrids

Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana
Dactylorhiza × braunii
Note : nothosubspecies = a hybrid subspecies; nothovarietas = subvariety.
  • Dactylorhiza × abantiana (D. iberica × D. nieschalkiorum) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × aldenii (D. iberica × D. kalopissii) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × altobracensis (D. maculata × D. sambucina) (France, Austria).
  • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana (D. incarnata × D. majalis) (W. & C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothosubsp. aschersoniana (W. & C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothosubsp. templinensis (D. incarnata subsp. ochroleuca × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothovar. uliginosa (D. incarnata subsp.pulchella × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × baicalica (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. salina) (Siberia).
  • Dactylorhiza × balabaniana (D. iberica × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × bayburtiana (D. euxina × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × beckeriana (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × boluiana (D. nieschalkiorum × D. saccifera) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × bourdonii (D. brennensis × D. incarnata) (France).
  • Dactylorhiza × braunii (D. fuchsii × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. braunii (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. lilacina (D fuchsii × D. majalis subsp. turfosa) (EC. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. monticola (D. fuchsii subsp. psychrophila × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. smitakii (D. fuchsii subsp. sooana × D. majalis) (EC. Europe). te
  • Dactylorhiza × breviceras (D. osmanica × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × carnea (D. incarnata × D. maculata subsp. ericetorum) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. ampolai (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. maculata) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. carnea (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. maculatiformis. (D. incarnata × D. maculata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × claudiopolitana (D. incarnata × D. schurii) (Europe.
  • Dactylorhiza × conigerum (D. maculata × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × csatoi (D. cordigera × D. maculata) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza czerniakowskae (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza × daunia (D. romana × D. saccifera) (S. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × delamainii (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. maculata) (SW. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis subsp. occidentalis) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. dinglensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. robertsii (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis subsp. cambrensi) (Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. senayi (D. maculata subsp. elodes × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. townsendiana (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. vermeuleniana (D. maculata × D. majalis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × drucei (D. majalis × D. viridis) (W. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × dubreuilhii (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. incarnata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dufftiana (D. majalis × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dufftii (D. incarnata × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. dufftii (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. gotlandica (D incarnata subsp. ochroleuca × D. traunsteineri) (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. stenkyrkae (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × erdingeri (D. sambucina × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza euxina (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
    • Dactylorhiza euxinavar. euxina (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
    • Dactylorhiza euxinavar. markowitschii (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
  • Dactylorhiza × flixensis (D. incarnata subsp. pulchella × D. traunsteineri.) (Switzerland).
  • Dactylorhiza × formosa (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × fourkensis (D. baumanniana × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × gabretana (D. incarnata × D. maculata × D. sambucina) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × genevensis (D. incarnata × D. latifolia × D. maculata) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × godferyana (D. majalis × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × grandis (D. fuchsii × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × guilhotii (D. incarnata × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × guillaumeae (D. incarnata × D. sambucina) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × gustavssonii (D. iberica × D. saccifera) (Greece to Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × hallii (D maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × hallii nothosubsp. hallii (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × hallii nothosubsp. nummiana (D. maculata subsp. elodes × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × hochreutinerana (D. alpestris × D. incarnata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × insignis (D. praetermissa × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × ishorica (D. incarnata × D. longifolia) (European Russia).
  • Dactylorhiza × jenensis (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. traunsteineri) (W. & NC. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × jestrebiensis (D. bohemica × D. majalis) (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × juennensis (D. fuchsii × D. lapponica) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × katarana (D kalopissii × D. saccifera) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kelleriana (D. fuchsii × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × kerasovinensis (D. pindica × D. saccifera) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum (D. fuchsii × D. incarnata) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. kerneriorum (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. lillsundica (D. fuchsii × D. incarnata subsp. ochroleuca) (N. & W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. variablis (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. incarnata) (W. Europe). *Dactylorhiza × komiensis (D. hebridensis × D. maculata) (E. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × kopdagiana (D. iberica × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × koutsourana (D. baumanniana × D. smolikana) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kuuskiae (D.longifolia × D. traunsteineri) (E. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × latirella (D. incarnata × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × lehmannii (D. incarnata × D. russowii) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × megapolitana (D. fuchsii × D. russowii) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × metsowonensis (D. kalopissii × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × mixtum (D. fuchsii × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × mulignensis (D. incarnata subsp. pulchella × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × nevskii (D. osmanica × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × ornonensis (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. incarnata × D. maculata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × paridaeniana (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × pontica (D. urvilleana × D. viridis) (Turkey)
  • Dactylorhiza × prochazkana (D. bohemica × D. maculata) (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × renzii (D. incarnata × D. nieschalkiorum) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × rizeana (D. euxina × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × rombucina (D. romana × D. sambucina) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × ruppertii (D. majalis × D. sambucina) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × salictina (D. pindica × D. smolikana) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × serbica (D. incarnata × D. saccifera) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × serreana (D. graeca × D. lagotis) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × sivasiana (D. umbrosa × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × sooi (D. alpestris × D. fuchsii.) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × souflikensis (D. baumanniana × D. pindica) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × stagni-novi (D. brennensis × D. fuchsii) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × szaboiana (D. cordigera × D. sudetica) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × transiens (D. fuchsii × D. maculata subsp. ericetorum) (Europe)
    • Dactylorhiza × transiens nothosubsp. corylensis (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. maculata)
    • Dactylorhiza × transienssubsp. ericetorum (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Dactylorhiza × transiens nothosubsp. transiens (Europe). Tuber geophyte
  • Dactylorhiza × turcestanicum (D. umbrosa × D. viridis) (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza × vallis-peenae (D. majalis × D. russowii) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × venusta (D. fuchsii × D. purpurella) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × venusta nothosubsp. hebridella (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. purpurella) (Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza × venusta nothosubsp. venusta (Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × viridella (D. purpurella × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × vitosana (D. saccifera × D. sambucina) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × vogtiana (D. iberica × D. incarnata) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × vorasica (D. cordigera × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × weissenbachiana (D. incarnata × D. lapponica) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × wiefelspuetziana (D. maculata × D. sphagnicola) (W. Europe).
This list follows the World checklist of monocotyledons,[3] periodically amended from the "Orchid Research Newsletter".[4]

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