Thứ Bảy, 20 tháng 4, 2013


The genus Ophrys is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe Orchidinae. These plants are remarkable in that they successfully reproduce through pseudocopulation, that is, their flowers mimic female insects to such a degree that amorous males are fooled into mating with the flowers, thereby pollinating them. There are many natural hybrids. The type species is Ophrys insectifera L.1753
They are referred to as the "Bee orchids" due to the flowers of some species resemblance to the furry bodies of bees and other insects. Their scientific name Ophrys is the Greek word for "eyebrow", referring to the furry edges of the lips of several species.[1]
Ophrys was first mentioned in the book "Natural History" by Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD).


The number of species recognized within the genus varies very widely between authorities. Flora Europaea in 1980 and Pedersen & Faurholdt in 2007 listed about 20 species in Europe as a whole;[7][8] Buttler in 1991 increased this to 53 for slightly larger geographical area;[9] Delforge in 1995 gave a total of 130 species.[10] By contrast, a molecular phylogenetic study in 2008 suggested that there were around 10 distinguishable groups.[11] As of March 2012, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes 34 species of Ophrys worldwide, along with their subspecies:[12]

Ophrys apifera (Bee Orchid)
  • Ophrys apifera Huds. – Bee Orchid
  •  Ophrys aranifera
  • Ophrys argolica H.Fleischm. – Argolian Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. aegaea (Kalteisen & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh.
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. argolica
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. biscutella (O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Kreutz
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. crabronifera (Sebast. & Mauri) Faurh.
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. elegans (Renz) E.Nelson
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. lesbis (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh.
    • Ophrys argolica subsp. lucis (Kalteisen & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh.
  • Ophrys atlantica Munby – Atlantic Bee-orchid
  • Ophrys bertolonii Moretti – Bertoloni's Bee-orchid

Ophrys bomybliflora (Bumblebee Orchid)
  • Ophrys bombyliflora Link – Bumblebee Orchid
  • Ophrys cilicica Schltr. – Cilician Bee-orchid
  • Ophrys ferrum-equinum Desf. – Horseshoe Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys ferrum-equinum subsp. ferrum-equinum
    • Ophrys ferrum-equinum subsp. gottfriediana (Renz) E.Nelson
  • Ophrys fuciflora (F.W.Schmidt) Moench – Late Spider-orchid
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. andria (P.Delforge) Faurh.
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. apulica O.Danesch & E.Danesch
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. biancae (Tod.) Faurh.
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. bornmuelleri (M.Schulze) B.Willing & E.Willing
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. candica E.Nelson ex Soó
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. chestermanii (J.J.Wood) H.Blatt & W.Wirth
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. elatior (Paulus) R.Engel & Quentin
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. fuciflora
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. grandiflora (H.Fleischm. & Soó) Faurh.
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. lacaitae (Lojac.) Soó
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. oxyrrhynchos (Tod.) Soó
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. pallidiconi Faurh.
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. parvimaculata O.Danesch & E.Danesch

Ophrys fusca (Sombre Bee-orchid)
  • Ophrys fusca Link – Sombre Bee-orchid, Dark Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. blitopertha (Paulus & Gack) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. cinereophila (Paulus & Gack) Faurh.
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. fusca
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. iricolor (Desf.) K.Richt.
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. pallida (Raf.) E.G.Camus in E.G.Camus & A.A.Camus
  •  Ophrys herae Ophrys herae
  • Ophrys insectifera L. – Fly Orchid
    • Ophrys insectifera nothosubsp. tytecaeana P.Delforge
    • Ophrys insectifera subsp. aymoninii Breistr.
    • Ophrys insectifera subsp. insectifera
  • Ophrys isaura Renz & Taubenheim
  • Ophrys kojurensis Gölz
  • Ophrys konyana Kreutz & Ruedi Peter
  • Ophrys kopetdagensis K.P.Popov & Neshat.
  • Ophrys kotschyi H.Fleischm. & Soó – Cyprus Bee-orchid, Kotschy's Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. ariadnae (Paulus) Faurh.
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. cretica (Soó) H.Sund.
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. kotschyi
  • Ophrys kreutzii W.Hahn
  • Ophrys lepida S.Moingeon & J.-M.Moingeon
  • Ophrys lunulata Parl.

Ophrys lutea (Yellow Bee-orchid)
  • Ophrys lutea Cav. – Yellow Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. aspea (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Faurh.
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. galilaea (H.Fleischm. & Bornm.) Soó
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. lutea
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. melena Renz
  • Ophrys lycia Renz & Taubenheim
  •   Ophrys mesariticaOphrys mesaritica
  • Ophrys neglecta
  • Ophrys oblita Kreutz
  • Ophrys omegaifera H.Fleischm. – Omega Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. dyris (Maire) Del Prete
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. fleischmannii (Hayek) Del Prete
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. hayekii (H.Fleischm. & Soó) Kreutz
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. israelitica (H.Baumann & Künkele) G.Morschek & K.Morschek
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. omegaifera
  • Ophrys pseudomammosa Renz

Ophrys reinholdii (Reinhold's Bee-orchid)
  • Ophrys reinholdii Spruner ex Fleischm. – Reinhold's Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. antiochiana (H.Baumann & Künkele) H.Baumann & R.Lorenz
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. reinholdii
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii (H.Fleischm.) E.Nelson
  • Ophrys schulzei Bornm. & Fleischm.
  • Ophrys scolopax Cav. – Woodcock Bee-orchid
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. apiformis (Desf.) Maire & Weiller
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. conradiae (Melki & Deschâtres) H.Baumann & al.
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta (Steven) E.G.Camus
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. heldreichii (Schltr.) E.Nelson
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. rhodia (H.Baumann & Künkele) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh.
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. scolopax

Ophrys speculum (Mirror Bee Orchid)
  • Ophrys speculum Link – Mirror Bee-orchid, Mirror Orchid
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. lusitanica O.Danesch & E.Danesch
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. regis-ferdinandii (Acht. & Kellerer ex Renz) Soó
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. speculum
  • Ophrys sphegodes Mill. – Early Spider-orchid
    • Ophrys sphegodes nothosubsp. jeanpertii (E.G.Camus) Del Prete & Conte
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aesculapii (Renz) Soó ex J.J.Wood
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. araneola (Rchb.) M.Laínz
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata (Rchb.f.) A.Bolòs
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aveyronensis J.J.Wood
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. catalcana Kreutz
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. cretensis H.Baumann & Künkele
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. epirotica (Renz) Gölz & H.R.Reinhard
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. gortynia H.Baumann & Künkele
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. helenae (Renz) Soó & D.M.Moore
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf.) Soó ex E.Nelson
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. passionis (Sennen) Sanz & Nuet
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sipontensis (R.Lorenz & Gembardt) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh.
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sphegodes
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. spruneri (Nyman) E.Nelson

Ophrys tenthredinifera
  • Ophrys tenthredinifera Willd.
  • Ophrys tremoris Gämperle & Gölz
  • Ophrys ulupinara W.Hahn
  • Ophrys umbilicata Desf.
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. beerii Shifman
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. bucephala (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Biel
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. calycadniensis Perschke
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. flavomarginata (Renz) Faurh.
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. lapethica (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Faurh.
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. latakiana (M.Schönfelder & H.Schönfelder) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. umbilicata
  • Ophrys urteae Paulus
  • Ophrys zagrica Gölz

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