Thứ Bảy, 20 tháng 4, 2013

Phalaenopsis

Phalaenopsis (pron.: /ˌfælɨˈnɒpsɪs/) Blume (1825), known as the Moth Orchid, abbreviated Phal in the horticultural trade,[1] is an orchid genus of approximately 60 species. Phalaenopsis is one of the most popular orchids in the trade, through the development of many artificial hybrids.

Classification

The genus can be classified into two groups :
  • A group of species with a long, branched inflorescence (up to 1 m long) and large, almost round flowers with rose or white tints.
  • A group of species with short stems and less rounded, waxy flowers with more pronounced colors.
In terms of Raunkiær plant lifeform terminology, these plants are epiphytes.
Based on DNA evidence, the genera Doritis Lindl. and Kingidium P.F.Hunt are now included in Phalaenopsis, according to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.[3] However not every specialist in this field accepts these taxonomic changes.
Intensive cross-fertilization has produced a great number of hybrids in all colors and variations. These are usually more adaptable to artificial conditions than their botanical ancestors. Many are hybrids of Phalaenopsis amabilis, Phalaenopsis schilleriana or Phalaenopsis stuartiana.
 Synonyms
  • Doritis Lindl.
  • Grafia A. D. Hawkes
  • Kingidium P. F. Hunt
  • Kingiella Rolfe
  • Polychilos Breda
  • Polystylus Hasselt ex Hassk.
  • Staurites Rchb. f.
  • Stauroglottis Schauer
  • Synadena Raf.

Species

Phalaenopsis cultivar, possibly 'Aphrodite'
Phalaenopsis cultivar
Phalaenopsis (Barbara Moler x Johanna)
  • Phalaenopsis amabilis (Moon Orchid; East Malaysia to Papuasia)
    • Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. amabilis (East Malaysia to Papuasia).
    • Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. amabilis forma Grandiflora (the Philippines - Palawan island).
    • Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. moluccana (Northeastern Borneo to the Moluccas).
    • Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. rosenstromii (New Guinea to Queensland).
  • Phalaenopsis amboinensis (Sulawesi to the Moluccas).
    • Phalaenopsis amboinensis var. amboinensis (the Moluccas).
    • Phalaenopsis amboinensis var. flavida (Sulawesi)
Pink Phalaenopsis
Phalaenopsis flower.JPG
Phalaenopsis cultivars
Phalaenopsis Mambo (a hybrid cultivar)
Phalaenopsis Nivacolor (a hybrid cultivar)

Natural hybrids

  • Phalaenopsis × amphitrita (P. sanderiana × P. stuartiana; Mindanao - Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × gersenii (P. sumatrana × P. violacea; Borneo, Sumatra)
  • Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica × lueddemanniana (P. hieroglyphica x P. lueddemanniana; (Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × intermedia (P. aphrodite × P. equestris; Star of Leyte; Leyte - Philippines) (First recognized Phalaenopsis hybrid)
    • Phalaenopsis × intermedia var. Diezii (P. aphrodite × P. equestris; Star of Leyte; Leyte - Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × leucorrhoda (P. aphrodite × P. schilleriana; Luzon - Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × rothschildiana (P. amabilis × P. schilleriana; Luzon - Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis x schilleriano-stuartiana (P. schilleriana × P. stuartiana; Leyte - Philippines)
  • Phalaenopsis × singuliflora (P. bellina × P. sumatrana; Borneo)
  • Phalaenopsis × veitchiana (P. equestris × P. schilleriana; Luzon and Leyte - Philippines)
Phalaenopsis Orchid Floral Arrangement

Intergeneric hybrids

The following nothogenera have been established for intergeneric hybrids which include species of Phalaenopsis as ancestors.
Pink Phalaenopsis (Moth) Orchids
  • ×Doriellaopsis (Doritis × Kingiella × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Doritaenopsis (Doritis × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Dresslerara (Ascoglossum × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera )
  • ×Edeara (Arachnis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vandopsis)
  • ×Ernestara (Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vandopsis)
  • ×Eurynopsis (Eurychone × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Hagerara (Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • ×Hausermannara (Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Vandopsis)
  • ×Himoriara (Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • ×Isaoara (Aerangis × Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • ×Laycockara (Arachnis × Phalaenopsis × Vandopsis)
  • ×Lichtara (Doritis × Gastrochilus × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Luinopsis (Luisia × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Lutherara (Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Rhynchostylis )
  • ×Macekara (Arachnis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • ×Meechaiara (Ascocentrum × Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • ×Moirara (Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • ×Nakagawaara (Aerides × Doritis × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Owensara (Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera )
  • ×Parnataara (Aerides × Arachnis × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Paulara (Ascocentrum × Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • ×Pepeara (Ascocentrum × Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera )
  • ×Phalaerianda (Aerides × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • ×Phalandopsis (Phalaenopsis × Vandopsis)
  • ×Phalanetia (Neofinetia × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Phaliella (Kingiella × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Phalphalaenopsis (Phalaenopsis × Paraphalaenopsis
  • ×Pooleara (Ascocentrum × Ascoglossum × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera )
  • ×Renanthopsis (Phalaenopsis × Renanthera )
  • ×Rhynchonopsis (Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis)
  • ×Rhyndoropsis (Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis)
  • ×Richardmizutaara (Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Vandopsis)
  • ×Roseara (Doritis × Kingiella × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera )
  • ×Sappanara (Arachnis × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera)
  • ×Sarconopsis (Phalaenopsis × Sarcochilus)
  • ×Sidranara (Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera)
  • ×Sladeara (Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Sarcochilus)
  • ×Stamariaara (Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Renanthera × Vanda)
  • ×Sutingara (Arachnis × Ascocentrum × Phalaenopsis × Vanda × Vandopsis)
  • ×Trautara (Doritis × Luisia × Phalaenopsis)
  • ×Trevorara (Arachnis × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • ×Trichonopsis (Phalaenopsis × Trichoglottis)
  • ×Uptonara (Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis × Sarcochilus)
  • ×Vandaenopsis (Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • ×Vandewegheara (Ascocentrum × Doritis × Phalaenopsis × Vanda)
  • ×Yapara (Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)
  • ×Yeepengara (Aerides × Phalaenopsis × Rhynchostylis × Vanda)

    Post-pollination changes in Phalaenopsis orchids

    Phalaenopsis are unique in that in some species, the flowers turn into green leaves after pollination. As in many other plants, the petals of the orchid flowers serve to attract pollinating insects and protect essential organs. Following pollination, petals will usually undergo senescence (i.e. wilt and disintegrate) because it is metabolically expensive to maintain them. In many Phalaenopsis species such as P.violacea, the petals and sepals find new uses following pollination thus escaping programmed cell death. By producing chloroplasts, they turn green, become fleshy and apparently start to photosynthesize, just like leaves.[4]

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