Chủ Nhật, 21 tháng 4, 2013

Vanilla (genus)

Vanilla, the vanilla orchids, form a flowering plant genus of about 110 species in the orchid family (Orchidaceae). The most widely known member is the Flat-leaved Vanilla (V. planifolia), from which commercial vanilla flavoring is derived. It is the only orchid widely used for industrial purposes (in the food industry and in the cosmetic industry). Another species often grown commercially but not on an industrial scale is the Pompona Vanilla (V. pompona).
This evergreen genus occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa. It was known to the Aztecs for its flavoring qualities. The genus was established in 1754 by Plumier, based on J. Miller. The word vanilla, derived from the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), simply translates as little pod.

Species

The taxonomy of the genus Vanilla is clear .[2] This is a partial list of species or synonyms:
  1. Vanilla albida Blume 1823
  2. Vanilla aphylla BlumeLeafless VanillaVanilla aphylla is a species of vanilla orchid. It is native to Southeast Asia. It is found throughout Southeast Asia including; Laos,Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Like all members of the genus Vanilla, V. aphyllum is a vine. It uses its fleshy roots to support itself as it grows.http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/orchids/PseFols1.jpghttp://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gudNlF8lPpo/TlnQFIDv32I/AAAAAAAAAas/YKfL00UKDAs/s1600/Vanilla+aphylla_2178.jpghttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/-MHzPzS8JVy0/TgClnFtUo-I/AAAAAAAABjs/FRSiIxHSTPU/s1600/Vanilla+aphylla_2041.jpghttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/-cb7d7RJP5bg/TgCloAaH27I/AAAAAAAABj8/D9Pr0kPn3U0/s1600/Vanilla+aphylla_2211.jpg
  3. Vanilla barbellata Rchb.f 1865Small Bearded Vanilla, Wormvine Orchid, "snake orchid", "leafless vanilla"http://orchid.unibas.ch/phpMyHerbarium/196594/1////img/196594m.jpghttp://phytoimages.siu.edu/users/paraman1/5_2_07_8/Portraits2s/Box12Image16.jpg
  4. Vanilla chamissonis Klotzsch 1846Chamisso's Vanillahttp://www.univie.ac.at/HBV/data/media/615/Vanilla%20chamissonis%20(18).JPG
  5. Vanilla claviculata (Sw.) Sw. 1799Green Withe
  6. Vanilla dilloniana Correll 1946Dillon's Vanilla, "leafless vanilla"Photo of Dillon's Vanilla (Vanilla dilloniana)http://orchid.unibas.ch/phpMyHerbarium/196596/1/Vanilla/dilloniana//img/196596m.jpg
  7. Vanilla edwallii Hoehne 1941Edwall's Vanillahttp://2.bp.blogspot.com/-8eytXLGCMfo/UPq7kapiG0I/AAAAAAAAAbg/ZqsLDNtj-9I/s1600/DSC_0123.jpghttp://farm6.static.flickr.com/5043/5377870729_feb9b169cb.jpghttp://farm6.static.flickr.com/5246/5378469256_7ce16b9549.jpghttp://2.bp.blogspot.com/_KgNXwJKq5Tg/TGAzSfze2yI/AAAAAAAABn4/871Rd4WXmr4/s1600/vanilla_edwallii_fruto1.jpg
  8. Vanilla mexicana Mill., Gard. ... Epidendrum vanilla L., Sp. Pl.: 952 (1753).Mexican VanillaVanilla MexicanaVanilla mexicanaVanilla Mexicana
  9. Vanilla odorata C. Presl 1827 Inflated Vanillaaaaaaaaa
  10. Vanilla phaeantha Rchb. f. TrustedLeafy Vanillahttp://www.flnativeorchids.com/images/orchids/vanilla_phaeantha/vanilla_phaeantha_flower.jpghttp://www.orchidboard.com/community/attachments/orchids-wild/33051d1245970533-vanilla-phaeantha-img_4371-small-.jpg
  11. Vanilla pilifera Holttum 1951http://doc.tistr.thaigov.net/doc/wp-content/upload/DSC06407.JPG
  12. Vanilla planifolia AndrewsFlat-leaved Vanilla, Tahitian Vanilla, "West Indian vanilla"http://www.orchidboard.com/community/attachments/identification-forum/16370d1216999070-vanilla-img_19711.jpghttp://aerialphotolab.com/DOinc/2004-05-14_Vanilla_planifolia_fruit.jpghttp://skuttlebut.com/Great%20Outdoors%20Photos/Vanilla%20Orchid.jpg
  13. Vanilla poitaeiPoiteau's Vanilla
  14. Vanilla pompona SchiedePompona Vanilla, Guadeloupe Vanilla, "West Indian vanilla"http://www.orchidboard.com/community/attachments/miscellaneous-other-genera/9868d1204922364-vanilla-pompona-van-pompona.jpghttp://cdn5.wn.com/pd/2a/40/13facfb3193f5c2ac57ce5372d27_grande.jpghttp://www.francoisegomarin.fr/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/IMG_4500-e1354163037331.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Vanilla_pompona_(Botanischer_Garten_TU_Darmstadt).jpg
  15. Vanilla siamensis Rolfe ex Downie, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1925Thai Vanillahttp://www.orchidsonline.com.au/files/VanillaSiamensis9884_0.JPG
  16.  
    http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/3748/1232/1600/DSCN01541.JPG

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